© 2014 - all rights reserved. DeNovo : accelerating science ISSN 2326-2869 (online)
Special Online Edition
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2/13/13 Solo Publication
"Novel North American Hominins, Next Generation Sequencing of Three Whole Genomes and Associated Studies"
Ketchum, M. S., Wojtkiewicz, P. W., Watts, A. B., Spence, D. W., Holzenburg, A. K., Toler, D. G., Prychitko, T. M., Zhang, F., Shoulders, R., Smith, R. (2013)
One hundred eleven samples of blood, tissue, hair, and other types of specimens were studied, characterized and hypothesized to be obtained from elusive hominins in North America commonly referred to as Sasquatch. DNA was extracted and purified from a subset of these samples that survived rigorous screening for wildlife species identification. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing, specific genetic loci sequencing, forensic short tandem repeat (STR) testing, whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) bead array analysis, and next generation whole genome sequencing were conducted on purported Sasquatch DNA samples gathered from various locations in North America. Additionally, histopathologic and electron microscopic examination were performed on a large tissue sample. The mtDNA whole genome haplotypes obtained were uniformly consistent with modern humans. Of the 20 whole and 10 partial mitochondrial genomes sequenced, 16 diverse haplotypes were found suggesting that these hominins did not originate in a single geographic location. In contrast, consistent, reproducible, novel data were obtained when nuclear DNA was amplified utilizing various platforms. Nuclear DNA obtained from Sasquatch samples produced novel SNPs, off ladder alleles on human STRs, retained human sequence interspersed with novel sequence, and whole genome SNPs that fell outside the human threshold. Three of the Sasquatch samples were subjected to next generation whole genome sequencing, each of which independently yielded high quality complete genomes.Analysis of preliminary phylogeny trees derived from supercontigs generated from all three samples showed homology to human chromosome 11 reference sequence hg 19, and to primate sequences. The totality of the DNA evidence suggests the Sasquatch nuclear DNA is a mosaic comprising human DNA interspersed with sequence that is novel but primate in origin. In summary, our data indicates that the Sasquatch has human mitochondrial DNA but possesses nuclear DNA that is a structural mosaic consisting of human and novel non-human DNA.
Species Identification, Human DNA Identification, Forensic Hair Analysis, Electron Microscopy,Next Generation Whole Genome Sequencing, Mitochondrial DNA
DeNovo - Special Edition
Interested parties. I went over the manuscript by Melba Ketchum on Bigfoot genomics. My desktop had difficulty with a blast analysis of the consensus sequences. It helped me understand more about the project. This collaborative venture has done a huge project that taxes me to fully grasp. I see interesting homology with a standard human sequence with 99% match for mitochondria. From my abbreviated study, the nuclear genome seems to have human and nonhuman sequences. My opinion of the creature is that it is a hybrid of a human mother and an unknown hominid male, Just as reported. For all practical purposes, it should be treated as human and protected under law. Sasquatch is real, as proven by genetic analysis.
Public Peer Review by David H. Swenson, PhD